Definition :  Anemia refers to a state in which the level of haemoglobin in the blood is below appropriate for age and sex.

We have described in article :

Classification of Anemia

Common Causes of Anemia

Clinical features of Anemia

Investigation of Anemia

Treatment of Anemia


Symptoms of anemia : 

  • Fatigue, tiredness, effort intolerance.
  • Effort dyspnoea.
  • Palpitations.
  • Effort angina.
  • Headaches.
  • Faintness, giddiness.
  • Pounding in the ear.
  • Symptoms of the cause.

Signs of anemia :

  • Pallor.
  • Tachycardia.
  • Koilonychia: Iron deficiency anemia.
  • Jaundice: Haemolytic anemia.
  • Haemolytic facies: Haemolytic anemia,
  • Bleeding manifestation: Aplastic anemia, anemia due to bone marrow infiltration such as leukaemia.
  • Temperature: Aplastic anemia, anemia due to bone marrow infiltration such as leukaemia.
  • Lymphadenopathy: Anemia due to leukaemia, lymphoma etc.
  • Systolic flow murmur
  • High cardiac output state.
  • Features of congestive cardiac failure.
  • Leg ulcer: Sickle cell anemia.
  • Rarely papilioedema.
  • Hypertension: CKD.
  • Abdomen: Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, any lump (stomach, colon).

Classification of anemia:

Morphological classification:

(On the basis of absolute values-MCV, MCH, MCHC)

1) Microcytic hypochromic anemia: ( MCV, MCH & MCHC)

  • Iron deficiency anemia. Thalassaemias
  • Sideroblastic anemia.
  • Anemia of chronic disease.

2) Normocytic normochromic anemia: (MCV, MCH & MCHC normal, but RBC & Hb).

  • Aplastic anemia.
  • Haemolytic anemia.
  • Acute haemorrhagic
  • anemia.

3) Macrocytic anaemia: ( MCV, MCHC normal).

  • Megaloblasic anemia vtamin B12 deficiency.
  • Megaloblastic anaemis due to folic acid deficiency.

Common causes of anemia :

1). Blood loss anaemia: Haemorrhoids.

  • Anal fissure.
  •  Bleeding peptic ulcer disease.
  • Carcinoma of stomach, colon etc.
  • Menorrhagia
  • Hook worm infestation.

2) Nutritional deficiency: Lack of iron and folate in diet, malabsorption.

3) Frequent pregnancy. 4) Chronic kidney disease (CKD).

5) Haematological malignancy.

6) Aplastic anaemia.

7) Congenital haemolytic anaemia.

8) Anaemia of chronic disease.

Causes of anemia in chronic diseases: [Mechanism- IL6 suppresses bone marrow

1) Chronic infection.

2) Chronic inflammation e.g. connective tissue disorders.

3) Malignancy.

History to find out cause of Anemia:

  • Any chronic bleeding e.g. per-rectal bleeding, hematemesis, melaena, haemoptysis, menorrhagia (in female).
  • Dietary history- Megaloblastic anemia is common in strict vegans.
  • Gastric or intestinal surgery.
  • Abdominal lump.
  • Fever, bleeding manifestation- Haematological malignancy, bone marrow failure.
  • Drug history-Immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Any chronic disease.
  • History of repeated blood transfusion- Hereditary haemolytic anemia.
Clinical features of anemia:

Depends on the degree of anemia and severity of the causative disorder.

Investigation plan for anemia : 

  1. Hb%, CBC with ESR
  2. PBF.
  3. Bone marrow examination- In suspected aplastic anemia, leukaemia etc.
  4. Other tests: (Done in particular situations)
  • Serum iron profile.
  • Haemoglobin electrophoresis.
  • Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid assay.

Treatment plan for anemia : 

1) Correction of anaemia by:

  • Oral iron therapy
  • Parenteral iron therapy
  • Blood transfusion
  • Folic acid and vitamin B12 therapy etc.

2) Treatment of underlying disease.

20 Responses

  1. Simply wanna comment on few general things, The website pattern is perfect, the subject matter is rattling excellent : D.

  2. Very well written post. It will be supportive to everyone who utilizes it, including myself. Keep up the good work – can’r wait to read more posts.

  3. tlover tonet says:

    Really great information can be found on site. “An executive is a person who always decides sometimes he decides correctly, but he always decides.” by John H. Patterson.

  4. Bom88 says:

    Hi I am so grateful I found your weblog, I really found you by error, while I was researching on Yahoo for something else, Nonetheless I am here now and would just like to say thank you for a marvelous post and a all round thrilling blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to look over it all at the minute but I have bookmarked it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the fantastic job.

  5. Perfect piece of work you have done, this internet site is really cool with fantastic info .

  6. Im now not positive the place you’re getting your info, but good topic. I must spend some time studying more or understanding more. Thank you for excellent info I was on the lookout for this information for my mission.

  7. GMB SEO says:

    As I website owner I think the subject matter here is real superb, appreciate it for your efforts.

  8. Thankyou for all your efforts that you have put in this. very interesting information.

  9. Useful info. Fortunate me I discovered your web site unintentionally, and I am stunned why this coincidence did not happened in advance! I bookmarked it.

  10. I have been surfing online more than three hours lately, but I never found any fascinating article like yours. It?¦s pretty price enough for me. Personally, if all site owners and bloggers made excellent content as you probably did, the web will likely be a lot more useful than ever before.

  1. January 25, 2023

    […] 3) Anaemia. […]

  2. January 25, 2023

    […] Pernicious anaemia. […]

  3. January 26, 2023

    […] rate > 100 beats/min. It is found in exercise, excitement, emotion, anxiety thyrotoxicosis, anaemia, atrial fibrillation, SVT, some other conditions and drugs […]

  4. January 26, 2023

    […] Mild anaemia […]

  5. January 26, 2023

    […] Anaemia is more than single pregnancy.  […]

  6. January 27, 2023

    […] Anaemia […]

  7. January 27, 2023

    […] Anaemia […]

  8. April 18, 2023

    […] Anemia […]

  9. April 19, 2023

    […] Anemia […]

  10. April 19, 2023

    […] Anemia […]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *