Causes and diagnosis of Fever


Definition :  A fever or pyrexia is a rise in internal body temperature to levels that are considered to be above normal.  Average body temperature is about 98.6 C degree or 37°C and temperature above 1004 F or 38°C are generally considered to be febrile.

We have described in article :

Common causes of fever

Overview of fever

Outline the management of the patient.


Causes of fever : :

A. Infection :

  1. Tuberculosis
  2. Enteric fever
  3. Malaria
  4. Dengue
  5. Kala-azar
  6. Infective endocarditis.
  7. Urinary tract infection.
  8. Abscess at any site
  9. Sepsis.

B. Malignant disease:

  1. Lymphoma.
  2. Leukaemia.
  3. Solitary tumour (renal, liver, colon, stomach).

C. Miscellaneous:

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease.
  2. Cirrhosis of liver.
  3. Thyrotoxicosis.
  4. Sarcoidosis
  5. Drug reactions 6
  6. Hypothalmic leision

Overview of Fever : 

Fever is a common symptom that occurs when the body’s temperature is higher than normal. A fever is usually a sign that the body is fighting off an infection or illness. The average normal body temperature is about 98.6°F (37°C), but this can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, and time of day. A fever is generally considered to be present when the body temperature is higher than 100.4°F (38°C).

There are many potential causes of fever, including infections (such as the flu or pneumonia), inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn’s disease), and certain medications (such as some antibiotics and cancer drugs).

If you have a fever, it is important to pay attention to your body and how you are feeling. In general, a fever is not something to be worried about, but it can be a sign of a more serious condition in some cases. If you are concerned about your fever or if you have other symptoms that are causing you concern, it is a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider for further evaluation and treatment.

Outline the management of this patient.

 a) Possible causes:

  1. Tuberculosis
  2. Kala-azar
  3. Malaria
  4. Leukaemia
  5. Lymphoma
  6. Aplastic anaemia

Investigations of fever:

  1. Blood for TC & DC of WBC..
  2. ESR.
  3. Peripheral blood film (PBF).
  4. Chest X-ray P/A view.
  5. ICT for kala-azar.
  6. ICT for malaria. Blood film for malaria parasite.
  7. Bone marrow examination.
  8. Lymph node biopsy, if there is lymphadenopathy.

Management:  According to definite diagnosis.

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  1. January 28, 2023

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