Diagnosis of pregnancy

Diagnosis of pregnancy

Define pregnancy : The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. This condition can be indicated by positive results on an over – the counter urine test, and confirmed through a blood test, ultrasound, detection of fetal heartbeat, or an X -ray, pregnancy lasts for about nine months, measured from the date of the woman’s last menstrual period (LMP).

We have described in article :

Summary of diagnosis of pregnancy

Positive or absolute signs.

Presumptive symptoms & signs

Solve a question about pregnancy.

Diagnosis of pregnancy

Summary of diagnosis of pregnancy : 

A. Positive or absolute signs : 

  1. Palpation of the fetal parts & perception of active fetal movements by the examiner at about 20th week.
  2. Auscultation of fetal heart sounds.
  3. Ultrasound evidence of embryo as early as 6th week & later on the fetus.
  4. Radiological demonstration of the fetal skeleton at 16th week & onward.

B. Presumptive symptoms & signs : It includes the features mainly appreciated by the women.

  1. Amenorrhoea.
  2. Increased frequency of micturition.
  3. Morning sickness.
  4. Fatigue
  5. Breast changes.
  6. Skin changes.
  7. Quickeninng

C Probable signs : 

  1. Abdomen enlargement.
  2. Braxton-Hick’s sign
  3. External & internal ballottement.
  4. Outlining of the fetus.
  5. Changes in the size, shape & consistency of the uterus.
  6. Jacquemier’s sign
  7. Softening of the cervix.
  8. Osiander’s sign
  9. Immunological tests

Solve a question about pregnancy :

  • A mother within lactational amenorrhoea for one year complaining something moving inside her abdomen. What will be your approaches for diagnosis the case?

Answer : 

Provisional diagnosis :  Most probably this is a case of pregnancy.

Differential diagnosis : Ovarian tumour.

Approaches of the patient

  1. Clinical approach : 
  • Side to side & above downwards movement : If side to side & above downwards movement present — –> ovarian tumour : if not —> gravid uterus.
  • Fundal height.
  • Fetal heart sound. If FHS present – – -> pregnancy.

2. Investigations : 

  • Immunological investigations / urine for pregnancy test.
  • Ultrasonography : Confirmatory.

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  1. April 19, 2023

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    […] Diagnosis of pregnancy […]

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