Clinical features, cause and treatment of headache.


Definition:  Pain in the region of the cranial vault is called headache.

We have described in article :

Causes of headache

Clinical features of headache

Investigations of headache

Treatment of headache

Overview of headache


Causes of headache

  1. Tension headache:
  • Anxiety
  • stress
  • Depression 

2. Vascular headache : 

3. Traction on arteries or venous sinuses:

  • Raised intracranial pressure
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage.

4. Inflammatory headache:

  • Intracranial : meningitis.
  • Extracranial:  gaint cell arteritis.

Clinical features of Headache : 

  1. Local tenderness
  2. Anxiety.
  3. Prostration.
  4. Nausea
  5. Vomiting.
  6. Photophobia.
  7. Visual disturbance.
  8. Pyrexia.

Investigations of Headache : 

  1. Blood for complete blood count.
  2. Serological tests of blood for syphilis.
  3. Plain X-ray of skull and nasal sinuses.
  4. EEG (electroencephalogram).
  5. CT scan of the skull.
  6. Visual acuity in specific cases.

Treatment of Headache : 

  1. Underlying cause of the headache must be find-out.
  2. Headache of short curation required no treatment.
  3. But in chronic psychogenic headache : Reassurance helps  greatly to the patient.
  4. Pharmacotherapy :
  • Paracetamol 500mg 1 tab 8- hourly or Aspirin 300-600mg 6-hourly is usually effective 
  • Mild sedative :  Diazepam 2-5mg 8-hourly, or Phenobarbitone 30mg orally once a day is helpful.

Overview of headache : 

A headache is a pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. There are many different types of headaches, and they can have a variety of causes. Some common causes of headaches include tension, sinus issues, eyestrain, and sleeping in an awkward position.

The clinical features of a headache can vary depending on the type and cause of the headache. Some common features include a throbbing or constant pain, sensitivity to light or sound, and pain that is worse with physical activity or changes in position.

There are several investigations that may be used to help diagnose the cause of a headache. These can include a physical examination, imaging tests such as an MRI or CT scan, and laboratory tests to check for underlying medical conditions.

Treatment for a headache will depend on the cause and type of headache. Some common treatments include over-the-counter or prescription medications, lifestyle changes such as getting enough sleep and managing stress, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or chiropractic care. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be needed to effectively manage a headache.

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  1. January 27, 2023

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